Walden

中文名:
瓦尔登湖
作者:
梭罗 Henry David Thoreau
类型:
小说经典
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瓦尔登湖(Walden)简介:

Walden (first published as Walden; or, Life in the Woods) by Henry David Thoreau is an American classic。 The work is part personal declaration of independence, social experiment, voyage of spiritual discovery, and manual for self reliance。

Published in 1854, it details Thoreau's sojourn in a cabin near Walden Pond, amidst woodland owned by his friend and mentor Ralph Waldo Emerson, near Concord, Massachusetts。 However, Emerson's lack of enthusiasm for the project can be seen in this thought delivered during Thoreau's funeral:

I so much regret the loss of his rare powers of action, that I cannot help counting it a fault in him that he had no ambition. Wanting this [that is, lacking ambition] instead of engineering for all America, he was the captain of a huckleberry party. Pounding beans is good to the end of pounding empires one of these days; but if, at the end of years, it is still only beans!"

Thoreau did not intend to live as a hermit, for he received visitors and returned their visits. Rather, he hoped to isolate himself from society to gain a more objective understanding of it. Simple living and self-sufficiency were Thoreau's other goals, and the whole project was inspired by transcendentalist philosophy, a central theme of the American Romantic Period. As Thoreau made clear in his book, his cabin was not in wilderness but at the edge of town, not far from his family home.

  瓦尔登湖(Walden; or, Life in the Woods),中国大陆译“瓦尔登湖”,台湾译“湖滨散记”,是美国作家亨利·戴维·梭罗所著的一本著名散文集。
  该书出版于1854年,梭罗在书中详尽地描述了他在瓦尔登湖湖畔一片再生林中度过两年又两月的生活以及期间他的许多思考。瓦尔登湖地处美国马萨诸塞州东部的康科德城,离梭罗家不远。梭罗把这次经历称为简朴隐居生活的一次尝试。
  美国的19世纪是个辉煌的时代,一大批作家都深受超验主义的影响,主活在这一时代的梭罗也不例外。作为这个时代的代表人物,梭罗对超验主义更是身体力行,《瓦尔登湖》就是他这一思想的体现,它是一部蕴含了深刻哲理的散文。细细读过《瓦尔登湖》的人都有体会;他是在探求怎样实实在在的生活,怎样体验与经历有意义的生活,为自己,也为他的市民同胞,还有当时与后来的读者们。
  本书以春天开始,历经了夏天、秋天和冬天,又以春天结束,这正是一个生命的轮回,终点又是起点,生命开始复苏。
  这是一本宁静、恬淡、充满智慧的书。其中分析生活,批判习俗处,语语惊人,字字闪光,见解独特,耐人寻味。许多篇页是形象描绘,优美细致,像湖水的纯洁透明,像山林的茂密翠绿;也有一些篇页说理透彻,十分精辟,给人启迪。
  这是一本清新、健康、引人向上的书,对于春天,对于黎明,都有极其动人的描写。这里有大自然给人的澄净的空气,而无工业社会带来的环境污染。读着它,读者自然会感觉到心灵的纯净,精神的升华。
  《瓦尔登湖》的伟大之处就在于梭罗能够通过艺术来实现自己决意要做的事业。通过创造一个有机的形式,他使自己的决定获得了新生:通过有意识的努力,他重新获得了一种成熟的恬静,如果说那不是黄金年龄的清纯狂喜的话。
  整个《瓦尔登湖》记录着自我在微观宇宙历程中的经历。
  如果梭罗仅仅给我们留下一部一个男人在林中生活的记载,或者说他仅仅退隐到森林之中,在那儿记载着他对社会的抱怨。甚至说,如果他想把这两者都合到一本书里,那么《瓦尔登湖》就不会有这一百年的生命。
  正像一切所进展的一样,梭罗记下了人跟自然的关系,人在社会中的困境和人希望提高自然的关系,人在社会中的困境和人希望提高自我精神的习性,连他自己恐怕也没有意识到自己在做什么;他一会儿为自我辩护,一会儿充满了喜悦、自由、奔放、创造出了一个独特的煎蛋卷,让人们在饥饿的一天不断从中汲以营养。《瓦尔登湖》是最早一盘充满维生素的菜肴之一。

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