The Interpretation of Dreams

中文名:
梦的解析
作者:
西格蒙德·弗洛伊德 Sigmuend Freud
类型:
心理学
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梦的解析(The Interpretation of Dreams)简介:
The Interpretation of Dreams is a book by psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. The first edition was first published in German in November 1899 as Die Traumdeutung (though post-dated as 1900 by the publisher). The publication inaugurated the theory of Freudian dream analysis, which activity Freud famously described as "the royal road to the understanding of unconscious mental processes".

At the beginning of Chapter One, Freud describes his work thus:

In the following pages, I shall demonstrate that there is a psychological technique which makes it possible to interpret dreams, and that on the application of this technique, every dream will reveal itself as a psychological structure, full of significance, and one which may be assigned to a specific place in the psychic activities of the waking state. Further, I shall endeavour to elucidate the processes which underlie the strangeness and obscurity of dreams, and to deduce from these processes the nature of the psychic forces whose conflict or co-operation is responsible for our dreams.
The book introduces Freud's theory of the unconscious with respect to dream interpretation. Dreams, in Freud's view, were all forms of "wish-fulfillment" — attempts by the unconscious to resolve a conflict of some sort, whether something recent or something from the recessess of the past (later in Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Freud would discuss dreams which did not appear to be wish-fulfillment). However, because the information in the unconscious is in an unruly and often disturbing form, a "censor" in the preconscious will not allow it to pass unaltered into the conscious. During dreams, the preconscious is more lax in this duty than in waking hours, but is still attentive: as such, the unconscious must distort and warp the meaning of its information to make it through the censorship. As such, images in dreams are often not what they appear to be, according to Freud, and need deeper interpretation if they are to inform on the structures of the unconscious.

Freud makes his argument by first reviewing previous scientific work on dream analysis, which he finds interesting but inadequate. He then describes a number of dreams which illustrate his theory. Many of his most important dreams are his own — his method is inaugurated with an analysis of his dream "Irma's injection" — but many also come from patient case studies. Much of Freud's sources for analysis are in literature, and the book is itself as much a self-conscious attempt at literary analysis as it is a psychological study. Freud here also first discusses what would later become the theory of the Oedipus complex.

The initial print run of the book was very low — it took many years to sell out the first 600 copies. Freud revised the book at least eight times, and in the third edition added an extensive section which treated dream symbolism very literally, following the influence of Wilhelm Stekel. Later psychoanalysts have expressed frustration with this section, as it encouraged the notion that dream interpretation was a straightforward hunt for symbols of sex, penises, etc. (Example: "Steep inclines, ladders and stairs, and going up or down them, are symbolic representations of the sexual act.") These approaches have been largely abandoned in favor of more comprehensive methods.[citation needed]

Widely considered to be his most important contribution to psychology, Freud said of this work, "Insight such as this falls to one's lot but once in a lifetime."  梦的解析(德语:Die Traumdeutung)是西格蒙德·弗洛伊德的一本著作,第一版出版于1899年11月。该书开创了弗洛伊德的“梦的解析”理论,被作者本人描述为“理解潜意识心理过程的捷径。”
  该书引入了本我概念,描述了弗洛伊德的潜意识理论,用于解释梦。根据弗洛伊德的观点,梦都是“愿望的满足”—尝试用潜意识来解决各部分的冲突(在后来的《超越快乐原则》中,弗洛伊德认为梦并不是显示愿望满足。)。不过,由于潜意识中的信息不受拘束,通常让人难堪,潜意识中的“稽察者”不允许它未经改变就进入意识。在梦中,前意识比清醒时放松了此项职责,但是仍然在关注,于是潜意识被扭曲其意义,以通过审查。同样,梦中的形象通常并非它们显现的样子,按照弗洛伊德所说,需要用潜意识的结构进行更深的解释。
  弗洛伊德首先回顾了此前关于分析梦的科学著作,他认为虽然有趣但是不够充分。然后他记述了许多梦,来阐明他的理论。他许多最重要的梦是他本人的— 他的方法开始于分析他的梦“Irma's injection” —但是也有许多来自病人的个案研究。弗洛伊德进行分析的许多来源来自文学作品,该书本身更多的是一次文学分析的自觉尝试,超过心理学研究的成分。弗洛伊德在此首次讨论了后来发展的恋母情结理论。
  起初该书的销量极低 —经过许多年才卖出600册。弗洛伊德对该书的修订至少有8次,在第3版中增加了很大的篇幅,鼓励梦的解析就是直接搜寻阴茎等性的标志的想法(如.(例如:“陡坡、阶梯和楼梯,上去和下来,是性行为的象征符号。”体现了威赫姆·斯特科的影响。后来心理分析学者表示这一部分受到了挫折,这些方法在很大程度上已被放弃,转而使用更全面的方法。
  普遍认为,该书是他对心理学最重要的贡献,弗洛伊德这样说到他的作品,“Insight such as this falls to one's lot but once in a lifetime.”

西格蒙德·弗洛伊德的作品

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